Cognitive development is strengthened when children are healthy, emotionally secure, and socially connected. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. “What was the first thing we did on our trip to the zoo?” “Why weren’t the parrots in their cages?” “I thought the lion was scary, what did you think?” • Parents who use the repetitive style provide little information and keep repeating the same questions, regardless of the child’s interest • Ex. Physical Development. Early Childhood Age group 2-6 years. A toy telephone to talk into) • First pretend acts imitate adults’ actions and are not yet flexible • After age 2, children pretend with less realistic toys (ex. Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood - . Presentation Title: Cognitive Development In Early Childhood. Pretend Play: Pretending is a favorite activity at this time. As school-age children grow from kindergarteners to pre-teens, their bodies and minds undergo extraordinary changes. Cognitive Development in Childhood.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. When adults point to, label, and talk about an object they help the child figure out the word’s meaning • Verbs (ex. Children who accumulate negative experiences carry those effects with them throughout their lives. Three … From 3 to 6 Months. Cognitive Development - . • Because preschoolers are not yet skilled at using memorystrategies – deliberate mental activities that improve the chances of remembering • Ex. “PIZZA”) • But they do not yet understand the symbolic function of the elements of print • Ex. View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Early Childhood Cognitive Development PPT. Then one row of pennies is spread out more, as shown in the drawing on the right-hand side. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Early development of reading depends critically on whether the receptive phonological component of the aural Multiple cognitive skills, such as information processing, language, memory, and spatial abilities, emerge rapidly in the first year of life. This includes a number of skills including logical reasoning, interaction and processing, and storing and using information. intellectually impressionable ways, CE114 Infant, Toddler and Early Childhood Development Unit 6 – Social & Cognitive Development - . Reality • What happens when preschoolers encounter objects that have 2 identities (a real one and an apparent one)? Drawing, putting a puzzle together), during sociodramatic play preschoolers’ interactions last longer, show more involvement, draw more children into the activity, and are more cooperative • Benefits of make-believe • Preschoolers who spend more time at sociodramatic play are seen as more socially competent by their teachers • Studies reveal that make-believe strengthens a wide variety of mental abilities • Sustained attention, memory, logical reasoning, language and literacy skills, imagination, creativity, understanding of emotions, and the ability to reflect on one’s own thinking, control one’s own behavior, and take another’s perspective, Preoperational Stage: Symbol-Real-World Relations • To make-believe and to understand other forms of representation, such as photographs, models, and maps, preschoolers must realize that each symbol corresponds to something specific in everyday life • Study • 2.5 and 3 year olds watched an adult hide a small toy (Little Snoopy) in a scale model of a room and then were asked to retrieve it from the model. Early development of reading depends critically on whether the receptive phonological component of the aural system and the expressive phonological component of the oral system are developing in an age-appropriate manner (Berninger, 2007). • When researchers adapt the 3-mountains problem to include familiar objects and use methods other than picture selection (which is difficult even for 10 year olds), 4 year olds show clear awareness of others’ vantage points • Even 2 year olds realize that what they see sometimes differs from what another person sees • When asked to help an adult looking for a lost object, 24 month olds, but not 18 month olds, handed her a toy hidden behind a bucket that was within the child’s line of sight but not the adult’s, Follow-Up Research: Egocentric Thinking • Non-egocentric responses appear in young children’s conversations • Preschoolers adapt their speech to fit the needs of their listeners • 4 year olds use shorter, simpler expression when talking to 2 year olds than to age-mates or adults • Non-egocentric responses in description of objects • Children do not use words such as “big” and “little” in a rigid, egocentric fashion • Rather, they adjust their descriptions to allow for context • By age 3 children judge a 2 inch show as small when seen by itself • But, judge the shoe as big for a tiny 5 inch doll, Follow-Up Research: Animistic Thinking • Piaget overestimated preschoolers’ animistic beliefs • Even young infants have begun to distinguish animate from inanimate • By age 2.5, children give psychological explanations (“he likes to”) for people and occasionally for animals, but rarely for objects • They do make errors when questioned about vehicles, which appear to be self-moving and have other lifelike features (ex. A toy has qualities beyond the way … A block might stand for a telephone receiver) • Gradually, they can flexibly imagine objects and events without any support from the real world • Play becomes less self-centered • At first, make-believe is directed toward the self • Early in the 3rd year children begin to direct pretend actions toward other objects • Make-believe becomes less self-centered as children realize that agents and recipients of pretend actions can be independent of themselves • Play includes more complex combinations of schemes • Sociodramatic play – the make-believe with others that occurs around age 2 and increases rapidly during the next few years • Creating and coordinating several roles in elaborate plots, by the end of early childhood children have a sophisticated understanding of story lines • Children display awareness that make-believe is a representational activity, Preoperational Stage: Make-Believe • Today, Piaget’s view of make-believe as mere practice of representational schemes is regarded as too limited • Play not only reflects but also contributes to children’s cognitive and social skills • Compared with non-pretend activities (ex. Parents require the child to perform simple chores and behave courteously toward others • These characteristics are seen less often in poverty-stricken families • But, when low-SES parents manage, despite daily pressures, to obtain a positive and stimulating home environment, their preschoolers do substantially better on tests of intelligence and emergent literacy skills • Home environment plays a major role in the generally poorer intellectual performance of low-SES children in comparison to their higher-SES peers, Preschool, Kindergarten, and Child Care • Largely because of the rise in maternal employment, over 60% of young children in the U.S. are enrolled in preschool or child care • A preschool – is a program with planned educational experiences aimed at enhancing development in 2-5 year olds • Child caredescribes a variety of arrangements for supervising children • Good child care should do more than simply keep children safe and adequately fed, it should provide the same high-quality educational experiences as an effective preschool, Types of Preschool and Kindergarten • Preschool and kindergarten programs range along a continuum from child-centered to teacher-directed • Child-centered programs – teachers provide a wide variety of activities from which children select, and much learning occurs through play • Academic programs (teacher directed)– teachers structure children’s learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and other academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill • Despite evidence that formal academic training in early childhood undermines motivation and emotional well-being, preschool and kindergarten teachers have felt increased pressure to take this approach • Montessori education • Special type of child-centered education • Schooling includes materials designed to promote exploration and discovery, child-chosen activities, and equal emphasis on academic and social development • Research has indicated that children who completed 2 years of Montessori education perform better in literacy and math skills, false-belief understanding, concern with fairness in solving conflicts with peers, and cooperative play with classmates, Early Intervention for At-Risk Preschoolers • Project Head Start – a long-standing U.S. program that provides low-SES children with a year or two of preschool education • Parent involvement is central to the Head Start philosophy • Parents serve on policy councils, contribute to program planning, work directly with children in classrooms, attend special programs on parenting and child development, and receive services directed at their own emotional, social, and vocational needs • High/Scope Perry Preschool Project – research study on the benefits of preschool • Results revealed lasting benefits into adulthood • 2 years exposure to cognitively enriching preschool was associated with increased employment and reduced pregnancy and delinquency rates in adolescence • At age 27, those who attended preschool were more likely to have graduated from high school and college, have higher earnings, be married, and own their own home, and were also less likely to have been involved with the criminal justice system • Gains from programs such as Head Start typically decline as low-SES children enter inferior public schools in poverty-stricken neighborhoods which undermine the benefits of preschool education • Still, Head Start is highly cost-effective compared with the cost of providing special education, treating criminal behavior, and supporting unemployed adults • Economists estimate a life-time return to society of more than $250,000 on an investment of $15,000 per preschool child, Child Care • Preschoolers exposed to poor-quality child care, especially for long hours, score lower on measures of cognitive and social skills and higher in behavior problems • Psychological well-being also declines when children experience the instability of several child-care settings • The emotional problems of temperamentally difficult preschoolers worsen considerably • In contrast, good child care enhances cognitive, language, and social development, especially for low-SES children • In a study that followed very-low-income children over the preschool years, center-based care was more strongly associated with cognitive gains than were other child-care arrangements • Probably because centers are more likely to provide a systematic educational program, Educational Media • Besides home and preschool, young children spend much time in another learning environment: electronic media, including both television and computers (and more recently tablets and handheld gaming devices) • In the U.S. and other industrialized nations • Nearly all homes have at least one television and most have two or more • About 85% of U.S. children live in homes with one or more computers, 2/3 of which have an Internet connection, Educational Television • Time devoted to watching children’s educational programs, such as Sesame Street, is associated with gains in early literacy and math skills and academic progress in elementary school • One study reported a link between preschool viewing of Sesame Street and other similar educational programs and getting higher grades, reading more books, and placing more value on achievement in high school • Viewing children’s programs with slow-paced action and easy-to-follow narratives, such as Barney and Friends, leads to more elaborate make-believe play than viewing programs that present quick, disconnected bits of information • However, whereas educational programs can be beneficial, watching entertainment TV, especially heavy viewing, detracts from children’s school success and social experiences, Learning with Computers • Many early childhood classrooms include computer learning centers • Word-processing programs can support emergent literacy • Enables children to experiment with letters and words without having to struggle with handwriting and to easily revise their text and check their spelling • When children worry less about making mistakes, their written products tend to be longer and higher in quality • Simplified computer languages that children can use to make designs or build structures introduce them to programming skills • As long as adults support children’s efforts, computer programming promotes improved problem solving and metacognition because children must plan and reflect on their thinking to get their programs to work • However, children spend much time using computers for entertainment purposes, especially game playing • Both television programming and computer games are filled with gender stereotypes and violence, which can have a negative impact on emotional and social development, Language Development: Vocabulary • By age 6, a child will have acquired around 10,000 words • Research shows that children can connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter, a process called fast-mapping • Types of words • Children fast-map labels for objects especially rapidly because they refer to concepts that are easy to perceive • Ex. Metacognition, "the ability to think about thinking", is another important cognitive skill that develops during early childhood. Spans 2-7 years Most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational, or symbolic activity Mental representation, Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chapter 7 (from page 227), Piaget’s Theory: The Preoperational Stage • Spans 2-7 years • Most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational, or symbolic activity • Mental representation • Language is our most flexible means of mental representation because it detaches thought from action • Piaget believed that sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience, which children label with words • But other theorists regard Piaget’s view of the link between language and thought as incomplete, Preoperational Stage: Make-Believe • Through pretending, young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes • Development of make-believe • Over time, play detaches from the real-life conditions associated with it • In early pretending, toddlers use only realistic objects (ex. In early infancy, perceptual abilities are still developing. In other words, experiences last a lifetime. Date added: 09-21-2020 psychosocial crisis: intimacy vs. isolation. Issues related to the type of intervention and other limitations in the extant evidence preclude strong conclusions about the minimum “dosage” of intervention recommended to achieve sustainable gains in typical milestones in cognitive development. “furniture”) and they break down basic-level categories into subcategories • Ex. In infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood, the body’s physical development is rapid (Figure 1). Choose activities that are just difficult enough so that children can learn a new skill or move toward a different way of thinking. Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chapter 7 (from page 227). Early Childhood •Foundation period of life. cognitive and emotional development. of Early Childhood & Primary Education - Identifying intellectual potential during the, The Early Childhood Development Association of PEI Understanding the Early Years - . To understand cognitive development and how it relates to a child's education, parents, teachers and academics draw on the research of psychol… with later abilities, skills, and knowledge building on those already acquired. On average, newborns weigh between 5 and 10 pounds, and a newborn’s weight typically doubles in six months and triples in one year. chapter 7. physical development. go, run, broke) are soon added, followed by modifiers (ex. In this demonstration, we begin with two rows of pennies that are spread out equally, as shown in the left-hand part of the drawing. Knowing that 4 + 3 = 7, they can infer without counting that 7 – 3 = 4 • Grasping basic arithmetic rules facilitates rapid computation and with enough practice children recall answers automatically • When adults provide many occasions for counting, comparing quantities, and talking about number concepts, children acquire these understandings sooner, Individual Differences in Mental Development • Mental tests for preschoolers sample a range of verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities • Verbal • Vocabulary – showing child a picture and asking them what is in the picture • Memory – asking children to repeat sentences and lists of numbers • Nonverbal • Spatial reasoning – asking child to copy designs with special blocks, figure out the pattern in a series of shapes, and indicate what a piece of paper folded and cut would look like when unfolded • Intelligences tests do not sample all human abilities, and performance is affected by cultural and situational factors • Low-SES and certain ethnic minority preschoolers may react with anxiety when bombarded with questions by an unfamiliar adult • Such children may not define the testing situation in achievement terms, instead they may look for attention and approval from the adult and may settle for lower performance than their actual abilities • By age 6-7, mental test scores are good predictors of later IQ and academic achievement, which are related to vocational success in industrialized societies, Home Environment and Mental Development • Preschoolers who develop well intellectually have homes rich in educational toys and books • Parents are warm and affectionate, stimulate language and academic knowledge, and arrange interesting outings • Parents also resolve conflicts with reason instead of physical force and punishment • Ex. That a combination of physical features, internal organs, and behaviors determine an animal’s identity • Adults also support categorizing by labeling and explaining categories, Follow-Up Research: Categorization • To sum up • Preschoolers’ category systems are not yet very complex, but they already have the capacity to classify hierarchically and on the basis of nonobvious properties • Preschoolers use logical, causal reasoning to identify the interrelated features that form the basis of a category and to classify new category members, Follow-Up Research: Appearance vs. wednesday, february 6, 2013. synaptic density. Chapter 8 - . Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. While physical growth and change is easily observed and measured in precise terms such as in inches and pounds, cognitive change and development is a little harder to determine as clearly. cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood - . A child pretending to go to sleep follows the rules of bedtime behavior and a child pretending to be his father conforms to the rules of parental behavior, Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory • One challenge to Vygotsky’s theory suggests that verbal communication is not the only means through which children’s thinking develops • Or in some cultures, even the most important means • In cultures that place less emphasis on schooling and literacy, parents often expect children to take greater responsibility for acquiring new skills through observation and participation in group activities • To account for children’s diverse ways of learning through involvement with others, Barbara Rogoff suggests the term guided participation • Guided participation – broader concept than scaffolding, referring to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication • Vygotsky’s theory says little about how basic motor, perceptual, attention, memory, and problem-solving skills contribute to socially transmitted higher cognitive processes • An area Piaget paid more attention to, Information Processing • Information processing focuses on mental strategies that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems • During early childhood, advances in representation and in the ability to guide one’s own behavior lead to more efficient ways of attending, manipulating information, and solving problems • Preschoolers also become more aware of their own mental life and begin to acquire academically relevant knowledge important to school success, Information Processing: Attention • Compared to school-age children, preschoolers spend shorter times involved in tasks and are easily distracted • Inhibition • Attention improves in toddlerhood and beyond as children steadily gain in their ability to inhibit impulses and remain focused on a goal • In Tools of the Mind (an effective preschool curriculum inspired by Vygotsky’s theory) scaffolding of attentional skills is woven into virtually all classroom activities • Ex. 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